The British Somaliland was a British protectorates during the colonization period in the Horn of Africa. It joined the Italian Somali land to form Somalia. It declared independence when the chaos destroyed the united Somalia.
When Britain withdrew from its protectorate in Somali-land on 26 June 1960 after 76 years of colonization that began in 1884, the British Somali land then joined the Italian Somali land on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic.
|Somali Land - Useful Resources|
The Reasons for Underdevelopment: The Case of De-colonisation in Somaliland (Contributions to Economics)
Consider Somaliland (African Social Studies)
Somaliland and International Criminal Justice: international prosecution against the Siyad Barre regime
Culture and Customs of Somalia (Culture and Customs of Africa)
Under the dictatorial regime of Mohamed Siad Baree, the people of Hargisia and other treitories around and at the north have experienced severe social injustice based on tribal causes, so they revolt.
The Somali National Movement (SNM) took arms against Siad Barre earlier and after the fall of Barre, the movement declared Somaliland as a new republic on 18 May, 1991 to gain self-sovereignty.
The first president of the new state was Abdurrahman Ahmed Ali Tuur. Then the Grand Conference of National Reconciliation in Borama appointed Muhammad Haj Ibrhim Egal in 1993 as president.
Egal was re-elected in 1997. He continued in power until he died on May 3, 2002. The vice president, Dahir Riyale Kahin, became president shortly after that date. Kahin was the first Somali Land president in a free and fair election on 2003.
The people of the new state had rebelled against Siad Barre's dictatorship in Mogadishu, which prompted a massive reaction by the government. But, the new state has not learned from the tribal destruction in Somalia, the motherland from which it seceded.
The new land formed a new hybrid system of governance under the constitution of the new state, combining the traditional tribal system with the western institutions.
They achieved this multi-governing system through a series of inter-clan conferences, culminating in the Boorama Conference in 1993. A qabil, (from Arabic, which means قبيلة / clan or tribe) system of government was constructed.
The governing system consisted of an Executive, with a President, Vice President, and Council of Ministers, a bicameral Legislature, and an independent judiciary.
But, the traditional Somali council of elders (guurti) was incorporated into the governance structure and formed the upper house, responsible for selecting the President as well as managing internal conflicts.
The government became in essence a "power-sharing coalition of Somaliland's main clans", with seats in the Upper and Lower houses proportionally allocated to clans according to a predetermined formula.
However, not all clans are satisfied with this formula of government. In 2002, after several extensions of this interim government, Somaliland finally made the transition to multi-party democracy, with district council elections contested by six parties.
Somaliland has political contact with Belgium, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Ghana, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Regarding its relation with Ethiopia, the war in Somalia in 2006 between the Islamic Courts Union inspiring Alshabab and the forces of Ethiopia and Somalia's transitional government has not directly affected Somaliland.
On January 17, 2007, the African Union has sent a foreign minister to discuss the future of international acknowledgement. The European Union has also sent a delegation for foreign affairs to discuss future cooperation. On January 29 and January 30, 2007, the ministers said that they would discuss acknowledgement with other member states.
The former Prime Minister of Ethiopia, Meles Zenawi held a conference with President Kahin in June, 2007. In an official communiqué by the Ethiopian Foreign Minister, they referred to the Somaliland President as the President of the new state.
That was the first time the new state has been officially acknowledged as a sovereign state by another government. While this is not claimed as a move to official recognition by Ethiopia, it is seen as a possible step towards a unilateral declaration by Ethiopia in the event of the African Union failing to move its recognition of Somaliland forward.
A delegation led by the President of the new state was present at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2007 in Kampala, Uganda.
Annemie Neyts-Uyttebroeck of the ELDER, one of three main parties in the EU, mailed a letter to Javier Solana (the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and Dahir Rayale Kahin the president of the new state on November 27, 2007.
The letter has appeared as an acknowledgement of the new state by the EU. Bush administration discussed in December 2007 whether to back the shaky transitional government in Somalia or to acknowledge and support the less volatile Somali Land secessionists.
Kenya has expressed its willingness to recognize Somaliland as a new state on May 2011 and the Kenyan government considered the new state as an important partner in the Horn of Africa's security.
During the era of the Kenyan third president Mwai Kibaki, the Kenyan prime minister, Raila Amolo Odinga has expressed his thoughts and said good words about the new state, which is considered the beginning of the Kenyan recognition.
More about Somaliland and Somalia:
Brief History of Somalia| Change Somali Prime Minister| Congratulations, Somali Land for Democracy| DAFI| Drought and War Devastate Somalia| Famine Plus Foreign Troops Against Somalia| It is Painful and Shameful in Somalia| Joint American Yemeni Troops Operate in HOA| Kulmiye Leads Somali Land| Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke| Omer Sharmarke| Refugees without Borders in the Horn of Africa| Somalia Country Profile| Somali Archives| Somalia's Political Problems| Somali Civil War is Madness| Somali Displaced People| Somali Famine is Over| Somali News| Somali Political Scene| Somali Political Situation| Somali Refugees| Somali Troublemakers|
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In addition to Somaliland here is the primary and the secondary Somali site maps, followed by comments on Somalia and Somaliland and some other Arabic comments. So, you could comment on this page, or on the other Somali topics in Arabic, or in English:
The Somali Site Maps:
Somali Arabic Comments - Primary Site Map 6 B.
Somali Political Articles - Primary Site Map 6 C.
Somali Political Forums - Primary Site Map 6 D.
Somali Political Comments - Primary Site Map 6 E.
Write about Somalia - Secondary Site Map 20.
The Arabic Articles and Commentaries Including Somali Land:
Arabic HOA Political Scene| Asmara| Eritrean Anecdotes| Eritrean Chronicle| Eritrean Stories| Freedom Bells| Heglig Oil Fields| HOAs Arabic Prose| New Sudan| Questions| South Kordofan, Sudan| South Sudan| Sudanese Arabic Political Articles|
The article I wrote about Somali Land above is supported by some information I gathered from many sources. I also had been in direct contact with the SNM, while I was journalist during the 1980s and while I was living with a family from Hargisia and I knew some members and top activists in the movement.
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