The Somalia Country Profile, includes Somali geopolitical profile, overview, facts book, geographical location, population, economy, legal systems, people's activities, political structure and legislations.
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Horn Africas Political Tragedy by Khalid Mohammed Osman
Humanitarianism Under Fire.
Somalia at the Crossroads: Challenges and Perspectives in Reconstituting a Failed State.
Somalia: State Collapse and the Threat of Terrorism.
Me Against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan and Rwanda.
Official name: the official name of Somalia now is Somali Federal Republic. It has been Somali Democratic Republic. The name in local language is Jamhuuriyada Demuqraadiga Soomaaliyeed.
However, the entire old Somali state is absent after the secession of Somaliland the insurgency that engulfed the state since the fall of Mohammed Siad Barre.
Capital city: the capital city of Somalia is Mogadishu in the south and the capital city of the Republic of Somaliland is Hargeisa in the north.
It is clear now that the Somali political parties have failed to strengthen the unity of the country after the independence, because they have played on the ground of the Somali composition of clans and religion.
Location: Somalia is located in a strategic corner at the edge of the Horn of Africa and in the East of Africa, occupying both the southeastern passage of the Red Sea and the costal line at the Indian Ocean.
Independence: 1 July 1960. British Somaliland became independent from Britain on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic.
Form of state: Somalia is a unitary republic only in theory. The Somali National Movement (SNM) declared the Somaliland Republic in the north as a unilaterally independent state in 1991.
The rest of Somalia still divided between rival armed groups with the Somali troublemakers dominating the Somali political scene and contributing to the deterioration of the Somali political situation for a long time.
Constitution: the first constitution was completed on 25 August 1979, and has presidential approval on 23 September 1979.
Legal system: the legal system of Somalia was based on the 1960 constitution until 1991.
National legislature: The national assembly was the People's Assembly. However, there are many forms of tribal elder people's committees.
However, most of the mentioned legalities have been completely destroyed during the escalation of the Somali political problems after the fall of Barre.
National elections: The last presidential elections in Somalia as one country were in 1967 and the last legislative was in 1969. Many elections held in the devastated Somalia and the presidential election in January 2009, resulted in the winning of the ICU Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed who became president without serious competition.
Head of state: the head of state is President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud.
National government: The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was the national government and it was weak, because of the significance some warlords have in the government.
After new presidency election in 2009, the president appointed a new prime minister and the new prime minister formed the national government. Then the new president took over.
Main political factions: there are many political parties based originally on tribal factions and clans' warlords. However, in some days in the past, political fractions were formed including United Somali Council (USC); Democratic Front for the Salvation of Somalia (DFSS); Somali National Alliance (SNA); Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM); Southern Somali National Movement (SSNM); and National Salvation Council (NSC).
Natural resources: Somalia has the following resources, although some of them are not exploited yet: Uranium, unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves.
Is there any resources that still have the potential for investment to rebuild the broken down economy of Somalia?
Population: population in Somalia reached 9,832,017 in the last official census in 1975. However, wars' factors pressed millions of Somalis to flee their country, or become Somali displaced people. In addition, great numbers of Somalis died in the mad wars.
Ethnic groups: the ethnic groups in Somalia are based on 85% Somali, Bantu and other non Somali at the rate of 15%.
Religion: Sunni Muslim.
Some facts in Somalia country profile above might have been changed. So, if things like this happen, please use the form on Somalia country profile to correct errors and to update the page. Thank you.
Literacy: 37.8%, 49.7% male, 25.8% female.
Administrative divisions: 18 regions. Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed.
Area: Somalia is 637,657 sq km, 10,320 sq km water and coastline 3,025 km. The area is reduced during the Somali conflict and the secession of Somaliland.
Climate: there is a desert climate in Somalia with moderate temperatures in north and hot in south.
Somaliland Republic: The Somali National Movement (SNM) took arms against Siad Barre earlier and declared Somaliland Republic in 1991 to gain self-sovereignty.
The first president of Somaliland was Abdurrahman Ahmed Ali Tuur. Then the Grand Conference of National Reconciliation in Borama appointed Muhammad Haj Ibrhim Egal in 1993.
Egal was re-elected in 1997, and remained in power until his death on May 3, 2002. The vice president, Dahir Riyale Kahin, became president shortly afterwards. Kahin was the first Somaliland president in a free and fair election in 2003.
Then Ahmed Mohamed Mahmoud Silanyo took over. Read more about Somaliland at the link above.
If anything changes on the Somali country profile, (of course the development never stop) please use the form to update this page providing the recent Somalia country profile, including all the facts you know.
This is a brief political view in Somalia country profile. For more details, see the links included here within and the bottom of the page.
Somalia gained its independence when the British withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960. Then this land joined the Italian Somaliland to form the new nation of Somalia.
After a referendum in the third French Somaliland in 1958, the Afar decided to remain with France. Then Djibouti gained independence from France in 1977 and Hassan Gouled Aptidon became the first president through 1977-1991.
In the united new country, Aden Abdullah Osman Daar became the first president and Abdirashid Ali Shermarke the first prime minister and then president from 1967-1969.
When the tribes' disrupt began, Shermarke appointed Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal as prime minister. Egal later became the president of the Somaliland.
After the assassination of Shermarke, Major General Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, General Mohammad Siad Barre and Chief of police Jama Korshel led a successful coup in 1969.
Barre became president with Korshel as vice-president. Barre assassinated Major General Gabeyre and other officials in the cabinet when he faced some tribal problems.
So, the main Somali political problems are in fact tribal, or clans problems. Then amalgamated with the religion those problems become backgrounds of the disaster in the country.
The past is important history. It is a key-point to understand the current problems of any state better, especially in Africa, as many political problems we see nowadays have roots from the past.
The comprehensive research that supports this point of view is on my book, "The Political Tragedy of the Horn of Africa" at the right column.
In addition to Somalia country profile, you may also be interested the other Somali articles below:
Somali Articles in English:
African Refugees' Influx to Europe - Comments: hoa-politicalscene.com/african-refugees-influx-to-europe-comments.html|
Congratulations, Somaliland for Democracy - Comments: hoa-politicalscene.com/congratulations-somaliland-for-democracy-comments.html|
Drought and War Devastate Somalia - Comments: hoa-politicalscene.com/drought-and-war-devastate-somalia-comments.html|
Famine Plus Foreign Troops Against Somalia - Comments: hoa-politicalscene.com/famine-plus-foreign-troops-against-somalia-comments.html|
It is Painful and Shameful in Somalia - Comments: hoa-politicalscene.com/it-is-painful-and-shameful-in-somalia-comments.html|
Joint American Yemeni Troops Operate in HOA - Comments: hoa-politicalscene.com/joint-american-yemeni-troops-operate-in-hoa-comments.html|
Kulmiye Leads Somaliland - Comments: hoa-politicalscene.com/kulmiye-leads-somaliland-comments.html|
Somali Civil War is Madness - Comments: hoa-politicalscene.com/somali-civil-war-is-madness-comments.html|
What to Educate Somali Refugees - Comments: hoa-politicalscene.com/what-to-educate-somali-refugees-comments.html|
Why Somaliland Denies Refugees Rights - Comments: hoa-politicalscene.com/why-somaliland-denies-refugees-rights-comments.html|
Somali Articles in Arabic:
In addition to Somalia country profile, you can view and read most of the Arabic articles at the Arabic HOA Political Scene.
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