The political problems in Somalia are not new. They have begun and escalated since the first day the European invaders landed in the area through the Red Sea and Egypt. Egypt had been the gate of the bad winds that blew to devastate many nationalities in the Horn of Africa and crept even southwards to the Great Lakes.
The problems are absolutely started long time ago. They are not only the problems caused recently by the Somali troublemakers, or the Ethiopian invasion, or the insurgency that engulfed the country since the fall of the military dictator, Mohammed Siad Barre, as we can see through the Somali political scene.
Somalia's political problems are deeper than that. They started from the first day the colonial powers landed in the area and escalated after the independence of the country from the colonial powers in three parts of the country.
We could never understand the Somali political problems unless we get into the past and know the situations and the beginning of al Somal as one state.
The causes hide absolutely behind the formation of the state. Britain, Italy and France controlled the land and divided it into three parts called the British Somaliland, the Italian Somaliland and Djibouti, which is in fact the French Somaliland, while they were competing for the national resources and the strategic locations in the Horn of Africa.
So, the problems started from this division to continued through the dictatorial period of Barre, the civil war after the fall of Barre and the turmoil led by the Council of Islamic Courts (CIC) and their military arm called al Shabaab.
During the past and up to this moment, the problems has escalated because none of the national political systems has build strong educational system towards well understanding to the requirements of a new modern secular and civilized state in the Horn of Africa.
Barre, as a military dictator has never thought of such education, because he wanted to keep the people politically ignorant. The education system worked that time to graduate only officials to help him in many administrative areas and to that limit only.
The religion worked also as motive to keep the people politically ignorant and think that any efforts to build a modern and civilized state work against their religious beliefs and it is "haram" to do that in a society considered traditionally Muslim.
The root causes of the political problems are clear through the brief history of Somalia and they continued to be great problems in the absence of the national sense through which the religious leaders and the leaders of the Somali clans have all together created an atmosphere of political absenteeism in Somalia.
They created this absenteeism and followed it to erase the national sense and build a religious and other tribal clandestine sense, instead, to benefit only those elites and created some claque around them to get the political propaganda to work in this direction to grow their economical interests.
Somalia gained its independence when the British withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960. Then this land joined the Italian Somaliland to form the new nation of Somalia.
After a referendum in the third French Somaliland in 1958, the Afar decided to remain with France. Then Djibouti gained independence from France in 1977 and Hassan Gouled Aptidon became the first president through 1977-1991.
In the united new country, Aden Abdullah Osman Daar became the first president and Abdirashid Ali Shermarke the first prime minister and then president from 1967-1969.
When the tribes' disrupt began, Shermarke appointed Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal as prime minister. Egal later became the president of the Somaliland.
After the assassination of Shermarke, Major General Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, General Mohammad Siad Barre and Chief of police Jama Korshel led a successful coup in 1969.
Barre became president with Korshel as vice-president. Barre assassinated Major General Gabeyre and other officials in the cabinet when he faced some tribal problems.
So, the main Somali political problems are in fact tribal, or clans problems. Then amalgamated with the religion those problems become backgrounds of the disaster in the country.
The past is important history. It is a key-point to understand the current problems of any state better, especially in Africa, as many political problems we see nowadays have roots from the past.
The comprehensive research that supports this point of view is on my book, "The Political Tragedy of the Horn of Africa" at the right column.
I will stop writing about Somalia here and you could continue on other linked pages from within, as this page is the primary site map 6 A. It should contain the main pages about Somalia in the Horn of Africa's Network.
In addition, it indexes some Somali site maps, HOA's site maps and the Arabic HOA Political Scene, so you could browse the page by topics in Arabic and English.
So, continue at the Somali pages (linked above), other Somali references through the content and some more Somali pages at the navigation bar at the bottom of the page.
You can read the following introduction of the Somali primary site map 6 A, or skip it to the main pages in the Somali primary site map 6 A about Puntland.
I have built this page as site map 6 A to organize this network because it is getting huge and then help you get to important pages on this country through those site maps and sections.
The site map 6 A indexes the main pages about Somalia, I published in the HOA Political Scene and it links to other Somali sections in the network, where you can read some more political articles and commentaries submitted either by the loyal readers of the HOA Political Scene Newsletter, or by the regular visitors of the website.
You have two choices here. You can skip this introduction and go direct to the relevant site maps and the section you want at the middle of this page, or read it for more information about this country.
The entire site maps on the HOA's Network include until this moment 34 primary and secondary site maps, All site maps are below indexing important Somali pages on the HOA Political Scene. The updates of the Somali political topics eventually appear at the HOA Political Scene Blog.
Somalia - You are reading this now. Somalia, the desperate country for mercy, love and peace makes the primary sitemap 6 A in the HOA's Political Scene Network.
It covers the information you need to know about Puntland, which is included on the main pages about Somalia. In addition, there are some other important pages about the devastated state of Somalia on the other primary and secondary site maps below.
Somali Arabic Comments - This is the site map 6 B. It includes comments on the main articles about this country written either by the loyal readers of the newsletter, or the visitors of the website. I wrote also some of the commentaries.
Somali Political Articles - This is the Somali primary site map 6 C. More political articles are listed here for you to follow the main articles on the primary site map 6 A. Read the political articles, correct any wrong information you may find there and comment on the political topics.
Somali Political Forums - The forums make the Somali primary site map 6 D. We intend to make it easier for you to participate in the modern forums here to read about the country and discuss its problems, or anything you want.
Somali Political Comments - This is the Somali primary site map 6 E. It includes some of the commentaries in this network. The commentaries include Arabic political comments and English political comments.
Write about Somalia - The readers of the HOA Political Scene Blog use the secondary site map 20 to write about Somalia. In fact many political articles and comments both in Arabic and in English have been submitted through this site map.
The First Published Somali Pages on the HOA's Political Scene:
The first pages we published about this devastated country are below followed by the HOA's Site Maps. Visitors and readers of the newsletter have built other pages. You can read those pages through the links on the second section of the site maps.
I recommend that you give your time to the political topics in this country, so you could get some political inspiration and correct any wrong information on those pages.
The Main Pages on Somalia:
Pages on Somalia By Visitors:
African Refugees' Influx to Europe| Change Somali Prime Minister| Congratulations, Somaliland for Democracy| Drought and War Devastate Somalia| Famine Plus Foreign Troops Against Somalia| It is Painful and Shameful in Somalia| Joint American Yemeni Troops Operate in HOA| Kulmiye Leads Somaliland| Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke| Refugees without Borders in the Horn of Africa| Somali Civil War is Madness| Somali Famine is Over| Somali Pirates have Real Estates| The Economy of Somaliland| What to Educate Somali Refugees| Why Somaliland Denies Refugees Rights| World Refugee Day, June 20|
Commentary Pages on Somalia:
African Refugees' Influx to Europe - Comments| Congratulations, Somaliland for Democracy - Comments| Drought and War Devastate Somalia - Comments| Famine Plus Foreign Troops Against Somalia - Comments| It is Painful and Shameful in Somalia - Comments| Joint American Yemeni Troops Operate in HOA - Comments| Kulmiye Leads Somaliland - Comments| Somali Civil War is Madness - Comments| What to Educate Somali Refugees - Comments| Why Somaliland Denies Refugees Rights - Comments|
Arabic Pages on Somalia:
Fill the gaps. Look at pages that have not received commentaries, or pages with few commentaries and comment on the political topics. Discuss, or correct the information on those pages. Write your political views.
HOA's Primary Site Maps:
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 1: Horn of Africa.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 2: Djibouti.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 3: Eritrea.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 4: Ethiopia.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 5: Kenya.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 6: Somalia and Somaliland.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 7: Sudan.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 8: Uganda.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 9: Chad.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 10: DRC.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 11: Political Site Map.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 12: Political Section.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 13: Humanitarian Network.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 14: Political Sense Journal.
HOA's Secondary Site Maps:
HOA Political Scene Site Map 15: Write about HOA.
HOA Political Scene Site Map 16: Write about Djibouti.
HOA Political Scene Site Map 17: Write about Eritrea.
HOA Political Scene Site Map 18: Write about Ethiopia.
HOA Political Scene Site Map 19: Write about Kenya.
HOA Political Scene Site Map 20: Write about Somalia.
HOA Political Scene Site Map 21: Write about Sudan.
HOA Political Scene Site Map 22: Write about Uganda.
HOA Political Scene Site Map 23: Write about Chad.
HOA Political Scene Site Map 24: Write about DRC.
HOA Political Scene Site Map 25: Readers Write Good.
HOA Political Scene Site Map 26: Readers Write Comments.
HOA Political Scene Site Map 27: Readers Read Good.
HOA Political Scene Site Map 28: Comments.
HOA Political Scene Site Map 29: Readers Comment.
HOA Newsletter's Site Maps:
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 30, Horn of Africa's Newsletters.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 31, Horn of Africa's Bulletins.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 32, Horn of Africa's Ezines.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 33, Horn of Africa's Political Newsletters.
HOA PoliticalScene Site Map 34, Horn of Africa's Journal.
Eritrean Site Maps:
Primary Site Map 3 A, Eritrea.
Primary Site Map 3 B, Eritrean Political Articles.
Primary Site Map 3 C, Eritrean Forums Online.
Primary Site Map 3 D, Eritreans Write Online.
Primary Site Map 3 E, Eritreans Love Commentaries.
Primary Site Map 3 F, Eritrean Political Comments.
Primary Site Map 3 G, Eritrean Humanitarian Topics.
Secondary Site Map 17, Write about Eritrea.
The Sudanese Primary Site Maps:
Primary Site Map 7 A, Sudan.
Primary Site Map 7 B, Sudanese Political Articles.
Primary Site Map 7 C, Sudanese Arabic Political Articles.
Primary Site Map 7 D, Sudanese Economical Forums.
Primary Site Map 7 E, Sudanese Cultural Forums.
Primary Site Map 7 F, Sudanese Forum.
Primary Site Map 7 G, Sudanese Forums.
Primary Site Map 7 H, Sudanese Regional Politics.
The Sudanese Secondary Site Maps:
Secondary Site Map 21 A, Write about Sudan.
Secondary Site Map 21 B, Comments on Sudan.
Secondary Site Map 21 C, Sudan Online.
Secondary Site Map 21 D, Sudanese Online.
Secondary Site Map 21 E, Sudanese Regimes' Political Crimes.
What makes the pain of Somalia worse?
What makes the bloodshed and the insanity in the devastated country?
The difficult answers are absolutely on many pages in the entire site map 6 A including the linked pages. The Somali primary site map 6 A highlights many problems in the country and the page you are reading about Puntland makes the site map number 6 A in the Horn of Africa's Network.
However, you could answer the questions above through the form on this page. Please write as long article as you could constructed of short sentences and short paragraphs, as you see on this page.
Like, or tweet, or share Somalia with your social media services through the small buttons you see on this page. Use the following form to comment, or write about Somalia. Thanks.
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Please click on the question marks to read more instructions. This will help you fill the form properly.
Comments, or new articles about Somalia appear at the second section of the page above. If you have not commented on Somalia, or written about it yet, please do that now. Thanks.
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