Somalia Country Profile!
Somalia Country Profile, overview, facts book, geographical location, population, economy, legal systems, people's activities, political structure and legislations.Official name:
the official name of Somalia now is Somali Federal Republic. It has been Somali Democratic Republic. The name in local language is Jamhuuriyada Demuqraadiga Soomaaliyeed.
the capital city of Somalia is Mogadishu.
Somalia is located in a strategic corner at the edge of the Horn of Africa and in the East of Africa, occupying both the southeastern passage of the Red Sea and the costal line at the Indian Ocean.
1 July 1960. British Somaliland became independent from Britain on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic.
Form of state:
Somalia is a unitary republic only in theory. The Somali National Movement (SNM) declared the Somaliland Republic in the north as a unilaterally independent state in 1991, while the rest of Somalia still divided between rival armed groups.
the first constitution was completed on 25 August 1979, and has presidential approval on 23 September 1979.
the legal system of Somalia was based on the 1960 constitution until 1991.
The national assembly was the People's Assembly. However, there are many forms of tribal elder people's committees.
The last presidential elections in Somalia as one country were in 1967 and the last legislative was in 1969. Many elections held in the devastated Somalia and the presidential election in January 2009, resulted in the winning of the ICU Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed who became president without serious competition.
Head of state:
the head of state is President Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed.
The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was the national government and it was weak, because of the significance some warlords have in the government. After new presidency election in 2009, the president appointed a new prime minister and the new prime minister formed the national government.
Main political factions:
there are many political parties based originally on tribal factions and clans' warlords. However, in some days in the past, political fractions were formed including United Somali Council (USC); Democratic Front for the Salvation of Somalia (DFSS); Somali National Alliance (SNA); Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM); Southern Somali National Movement (SSNM); and National Salvation Council (NSC).
Somalia has the following resources, although some of them are not exploited yet: Uranium, unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves.
population in Somalia reached 9,832,017 in the last official census in 1975. However, wars' factors pressed millions of Somalis to flee their country. In addition, great numbers of Somalis died in the mad wars.
the ethnic groups in Somalia are based on 85% Somali, Bantu and other non Somali at the rate of 15%.
37.8%, 49.7% male, 25.8% female
18 regions. Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed.
Somalia is 637,657 sq km, 10,320 sq km water and coastline 3,025 km
there is a desert climate in Somalia with moderate temperatures in north and hot in south.
The Somali National Movement (SNM) took arms against Siad Barre earlier and declared Somaliland Republic in 1991 to gain self-sovereignty. The first president of Somaliland was Abdurrahman Ahmed Ali Tuur. Then the Grand Conference of National Reconciliation in Borama appointed Muhammad Haj Ibrhim Egal in 1993.
Egal was re-elected in 1997, and remained in power until his death on May 3, 2002. The vice president, Dahir Riyale Kahin, became president shortly afterwards. Kahin was the first Somaliland president in a free and fair election in 2003. Read more about Somaliland
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