Ethiopia Country Profile!

Ethiopia Country Profile!

Country Official name: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Form of state: Federal republic

Capital: Addis Ababa

Area: 1,127,127 sq km

Border Countries: Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan

Population: 82,237,338. Population growth is at the rate 3.208%

Languages: Amarigna 32.7%, Oromigna 31,6%, Tigrigna 6.1%, Somaligna 6%, Guaragigna 3.5%, Sidamigna 3.5%, Hadiyigna 1.7%, other 14.8%, English is the major foreign language.

Ethnic Groups: Oromo 32.1%, Amara 30.1%, Tigraway 6.2%, Somalie 5.9%, Guragie 4.3%, Sidama 3.5%, Welaita 2.4%, other 15,4% from the census in 1994.

Climate: Tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Environment: Deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management.

International environment: party to those bodies – Ozone Layer Protection; Law of the Sea; Bio Diversity; Desertification; Climate Change; Climate Change - Kyoto; Endangered Species; Hazardous Wastes; Ship Pollution.

Terrain: High plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley.

Natural Resources: Small reserves of gold, platinum, cooper, potash, natural gas, hydropower.

Irrigated Land: 2,900 sq km.

HIV/AIDS: 980,000 living with AIDS. 67,000 dead.

Religions: Christian 32.7% - Orthodox 50.6% and Protestant 10.2%. Muslim 32.8%, traditional 4.6%, other 1.8%

Literacy: male 50.3% and female 35.1%

Ethiopian Refugees: 66,980 in Sudan; 16,576 in Somalia; 13,078 in Eritrea.

Political structure:

Legal system: the federal constitution was promulgated by the transitional authorities in December 1994. Representatives were elected to the institutions of the new republic in May 1995, which formally came into operation in August 1995.

National legislature: the 548-member Council peoples’ Representatives is the federal assembly. Nine regional State Councils have limited powers, including that of appointing the supervisory Federal Council.

National elections: June 1994 (Constituent Assembly); May 1995 (federal and regional); next elections 200, 2005 (federal and regional)

Ethiopia Country Profile

Political parties: Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF), Afar National Democratic Party (ANDP) led by Mohammed Kedir; Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front (BGPDUF) led by Mulualem Besse; Coalition for Unity and Democratic Party (CUDP); Gurage Nationalities' Democratic Movement (GNDM); Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement (OFDM); Oromo People's Congress (OPC); Somali People's Democratic Party (SPDP) United Ethiopian Democratic Forces (UEDF), the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), Amhara National Democratic Movenment (ANDM, formerly the Ethiopian People’s Democratic Movement),

Political pressure groups: Ethiopian People's Patriotic Front (EPPF); Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF); Oromo Liberation Front (OLF)

Head of state: President, Negaso Gidada, largely ceremonial and appointed by the Council of Peoples' Representatives, 22 August 1995 - 8 October 2001. Replaced by Girma Wolde-Giyorgis Lucha in 8 October 2001.

Ethiopia Country Profile

Prime Minister: Meles Zenawi
Defence Minister Siraj Fergesa, former Federal Affairs Minister.
Former Defence Minister, Kuma Demeksa became Mayor of Addis Ababa.
Justice Minister, Berhan Hailu, former Information Minister.
Public Organization Advisor to the Prime Minister Haile-Mariam Desalegn is now the Government Whip.
Federal Affairs Minister, Dr. Shiferaw Tekle-Mariam, former Health Minister.
Education Minister, Demeke Mekonnen, former Deputy Chief of the Amhara State Administration, replacing Sintayehu Woldemickael.
Science and Technology Minister, Junedin Sado, former Transport and Communication Minister.
Transport and Communication Minister, Diriba Kuma.
Women Affairs Minister, Muferiat Kamil.

Parliament consist of House of Federation and House of People's Representatives. The president is elected by the House of People's Representatives for a six-year term. The prime minister is designated by the party in power following legislative elections.

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